The fuel injector is essentially an electrical gate that opens, to allow the perfect amount of fuel required to operate the engine. At one end of the injector, gas is stored under high pressure and at the other end is the cylinder which ignites the gas. The brain of your car instructs the injector to open in short bursts to allow the exact amount of fuel necessary. Without the right fuel injector, the car engine may not start or it may overflow, resulting in wastage of gas. In most of the cars, the stock fuel injector is sufficient. However, if you want to make changes to your car, you have to upgrade the fuel injector accordingly to realize the turbo power.
Before setting out to modify the fuel injector engine, you need to know the basics, so that you can make the right choice. The fuel injectors vary according to the pulse duration and duty cycle. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) uses multiple sensors in the Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system to determine the required pulse duration. The required amount of fuel depends on the engine temperature and load along with air density and flow. The pulse duration varies according to the engine speed. Duty cycle is the pulse duration related to the available time, when the engine is held at the red line. It is usually expressed in percentage.
The high-performance fuel injectors (60lb, 80lb, 96lb, 105lb, 120lb, 160lb, 200lb, 225lb) are made of electronic solenoids and they are held open only for a short duration. Otherwise, they will fail due to overheating. Most high-performance fuel injectors have an 80% duty cycle and some even have 92% duty cycle. When injectors are used at 60% to 70% of the duty cycle, the engine performance improves. You can modify the duty cycle by varying the injector nozzle size and fuel pressure.
You need to know the base pressure of your vehicle because the injectors operate only at base pressure. If you are looking for a pressure boost, you may be tempted to add more fuel pumps or powerful pumps. It is best to use the fuel injectors at lower pressure to ensure minimal air pressure. So, instead of adding fuel pumps, you can choose fuel injectors with a bigger nozzle. Again, this decision should not be taken lightly because larger injectors may result in rich fuel mixture. Many ECU units are designed to ignore injectors that are 20% larger than the stock injector. In that case, the ECU may assume that the sensors are faulty and it results in delivering a rich mixture.
The optimal flow of fuel is essential because the rich fuel mixture leads to power loss. It also results in wastage of gas and money. When you change the fuel injectors, you must also ensure that the fuel pump can match the performance of the injectors. Combined with fuel injectors, the fuel pumps can increase the throttle response, torque and horsepower. The fuel pressure regulators help you to monitor the gasoline intake. Fuel catalysts are also used frequently to increase fuel economy.